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¿Cómo afecta la televisión a los niños? PDF Imprimir E-Mail

La televisión tiene una influencia enorme sobre la forma en que los niños ven el mundo
En los últimos años la televisión se ha convertido en una parte importante en la vida de nuestros hijos. El niño convive de forma natural con ella, y lo que ve en ella interviene en su desarrollo como persona. El niño por su inmadurez es muy influenciable. La televisión debe tener su lugar en la vida de un niño como cualquier otra actividad de ocio (como jugar, saltar, correr, leer o escuchar música).
Sin embargo, hoy día los niños ven demasiada televisión; y esto conlleva dos problemas principales: el tiempo (demasiado) que pasan delante del televisor y la programación en sí misma, lo que ven.
No se puede olvidar que nuestros pequeños están iniciando su formación y que todo lo que vean, escuchen, y viven, pesará sobre ellos.
Ya que  los niños pasan tanto tiempo mirando la  televisión, debemos preguntarnos ciertas cosas
• ¿Cómo afecta la televisión a los niños?
• ¿Qué beneficios tiene la televisión?
• ¿Cuáles son los riesgos?

Las cosas que los niños ven en la televisión

El hecho de observar violencia excesiva puede hacer que un niño se vuelva muy temeroso acerca de su seguridad personal y del futuro. Después de ver programas televisivos violentos, los niños pequeños pueden ser más agresivos en sus juegos. Aunque la violencia en la televisión no aumenta el comportamiento agresivo hacia otras personas en la mayoría de los niños, puede hacerlo en los niños inseguros o impulsivos.
El sexo es a menudo representado en la televisión de forma poco realista. El sexo en la televisión es representado como algo casual, impersonal, y explotativo.
La publicidad en la televisión fomenta el consumismo. Insta a consumir alimentos, en general poco saludables para los niños (bollería, golosinas, refrescos, comidas rápidas) que predisponen a caries, obesidad y malos hábitos alimentarios.
El mensaje subyacente es que la gente popular consume alcohol.
Las consecuencias de la televisión.
•Los niños son menos creativos e imaginativos.
• Conviven menos con su familia y amigos.
• Reprime la inclinación a la lectura.
• Disminuye el rendimiento escolar.
•Problemas de aumento excesivo de peso corporal.
Los niños que miran demasiada televisión son menos creativos e imaginativos, tienen menos tiempo para usar la imaginación y para pensar. Ver la televisión les deja menos tiempo para participar en los deportes, para la música, el arte y para otras actividades.
 Existe una conexión muy marcada entre mirar demasiada televisión y la obesidad. A más televisión menos tiempo para actividades físicas. Además, muchos de los anuncios de comida dirigidos a los niños, son de comidas procesadas y altas en calorías. Estos anuncios promueven malos hábitos para comer. Raramente se anuncian comidas saludables como fruta y verduras. Finalmente, comer mientras se ve televisión promueve lo obesidad. Los niños que comen mientras miran la televisión no se dan cuenta de cuánto han comido. Esto aumenta el riesgo de comer demasiado.
Algunas cosas buenas de la televisión
•Contemplar otros estilos de vida y otras culturas.
• No hay que “ver televisión”, sino que ver programas de televisión.
Los efectos nocivos de la televisión vienen determinados por el mal uso que se da de ella. Sin embargo, la televisión puede ser utilizada como elemento educativo. Existen programas con un alto contenido educativo y muy útiles como concursos, documentales, programas que ayudan a desarrollar habilidades o transmiten valores positivos, etc.
Tenemos que enseñar a los hijos que no hay que “ver televisión”, sino ver programas de televisión. Así se podrá desarrollar la capacidad de selección y de discriminación, que los habilitará para ver aquello que les conviene.
Qué podemos hacer los padres
•Entérate de lo que tus hijos miran.
•Mira la televisión con tus hijos.
•Discute el sexo y la violencia.
•Aconseja a tus hijos  mirar programas con personajes que son ejemplos positivos.
•No uses la televisión de canguro.
•Empieza a limitar la televisión cuando los niños son pequeños.
•Pon reglas específicas en cuanto a mirar televisión.
•Controla tus propios hábitos de mirar televisión.
Hay muchas cosas que los padres podemos hacer para reducir los efectos negativos de la televisión. Los  padres debemos aconsejar a los hijos a usar la televisión como una herramienta para el aprendizaje. Las discusiones y explicaciones deben hacerse conforme al nivel de entendimiento del niño.
Si los niños aprenden a limitar la televisión a temprana edad, la posibilidad de crear malos hábitos será menor. Es posiblemente más fácil adquirir malos hábitos de televisión que cambiarlos una vez que son adquiridos. Los padres debemos de poner límites tan pronto como los niños empiezan a mirar la televisión. Esto sucede usualmente durante el primer año de edad.
Los padres debemos determinar por adelantado qué programas se pueden mirar. Debemos poner límites específicos en el número de programas y la cantidad de horas que se puede mirar televisión cada día.
Algunas normas
•Limita el tiempo para ver la televisión a 2 horas al día o menos (idealmente 1 hora al día).
•Si el niño va mal en la escuela, limita el tiempo a media hora al día.
•Establece la hora de dormir sin que se altere por algún programa  que pueda interesar a tu hijo (lo puedes grabar para verlo en otro momento).
•Apaga la televisión durante las comidas.
•Enséñale a tu hijo a apagar la televisión cuando termine un programa.
• Estimula a tu hijo para que vea programas educativos o que enseñen los valores humanos.
•Prohíbe los programas violentos.
• Discute los anuncios publicitarios con tus hijos.
Si la televisión permanece encendida, tu hijo probablemente se interesará en el programa siguiente y entonces le resultará más difícil despegarse de la televisión. Debes saber lo que tu hijo está viendo y debes apagar el televisor si  te parece que el programa no es bueno.
Si permites que tu hijo vea programas que muestran violencia, háblale sobre las consecuencias de la violencia. Señálale la forma en que la violencia perjudica a la víctima y a la familia de la víctima. Usa los programas acerca del amor, el sexo, las disputas familiares, el alcoholismo y las drogas como una forma de iniciar las conversaciones familiares sobre estos temas difíciles.
Una alternativa es limitar la televisión a 1 hora  los días de escuela y a 2 ó 3 horas al día los fines de semana. Puedes permitirles más tiempo cuando haya algún programa educativo especial.
Establece la regla de que el niño debe terminar primero la tarea y sus obligaciones antes de ver la televisión. Si el programa favorito del niño se transmite antes de terminar la tarea, considera grabarle el programa para que lo vea más tarde.
Los niños a quienes se les permite estar despiertos hasta tarde viendo la televisión normalmente están muy cansados al siguiente día para recordar lo que se les enseña en la escuela. De ninguna manera permitas que tu hijo tenga un televisor en su habitación, porque esto limita el control que tienes sobre el tiempo que él pasa viendo televisión.
¿A qué conclusiones podemos llegar?
1. Ver la televisión en familia.
2. Ver menos tiempo la televisión.
3. Predicar con el ejemplo.
Ver la televisión en familia nos permite conocer los contenidos de los programas que ven nuestros hijos y enseñarles a tener una actitud crítica y selectiva de todo lo que ven.
Es importante predicar con el ejemplo; los padres no pueden ser adictos de la televisión y deben saber discriminar los programas que ven en casa.
La “cultura de la imagen” debe llegar a los niños por medios que no sean exclusivamente la televisión. Enséñales a tus hijos que fuera de la pantalla existen los paisajes, las puestas de sol, los jardines, los museos y exposiciones, los libros, etcétera.
¡No tengas todo el día el televisor encendido!

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